Extreme Temperature Diary- Sunday September 18th, 2022/Main Topic: Hottest Summer on Record for Europe and China

The main purpose of this ongoing blog will be to track planetary extreme, or record temperatures related to climate change. Any reports I see of ETs will be listed below the main topic of the day. I’ll refer to extreme or record temperatures as ETs (not extraterrestrials).😉

Main Topic: Hottest Summer on Record for Europe and China

Dear Diary. Before Summer 2022 fades into history, it would be worth our while to repost a great summary from Dr. Jeff Masters and Bob Henson indicating how extremely anomalously hot conditions were across most of the Northern Hemisphere. After all, this is the Extreme Temperature Diary.

Record hot conditions produced a host of problems from historic drought across China and Europe to many health issues. We won’t know how many fatalities occurred from record heat for a while until we get tallies from entities like the United Nations. It must be emphasized that many more substantial unfortunate deaths can be prevented by the planet getting weaned off fossil fuels…but in a hurry. It must be stated that civilization is now in a pickle because summers like that of 2022 will become much more common and even hotter no matter what happens to emissions because of our inaction during the late 20th century and first couple of decades from the 21st.

On the periphery of heat domes, we saw record flooding. Pakistan was this year’s main victim. Bob and Dr. Masters touch on that problem here on their great, long summary:


Hottest summer on record for Europe and China during Northern Hemisphere’s 2nd-hottest summer

Globally, an astonishing 298 long-term weather stations – including 265 in China – set their all-time heat records in August.

Jeff MastersBob Henson


Melting glacier in SwitzerlandA tarp protects a melting glacier on Switzerland’s Mont Fort on August 28, 2022, as researcher Christopher Lambiel evaluates the record melting of over 4.6 meters that occurred since mid-May. Recent summers have averaged about one meter of melting. (Image credit: Oliver Zihlmann from @Tamedia investigative team.)

The summer of 2022 was the hottest on record for Europe and China, the second-hottest for North America and Asia, and the fifth-hottest June-to-August period for planet Earth since record-keeping began in 1880, NOAA’s National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI) reported September 14.

NASA ranked June through August as tied with 2019 for the warmest on record globally.

According to NOAA, August was Earth’s sixth-warmest August on record, and the warmest on record over Northern Hemisphere land areas. NASA rated August as the second warmest on record, behind 2016, 1.22 degrees Celsius (2.20°F) above the 1880-1920 period – its best estimate for when preindustrial temperatures last occurred. The European Copernicus Climate Change Service rated August 2022 as the third warmest August on record; the Japan Meteorological Agency rated it the second warmest. Minor differences in the agencies’ rankings can result from the different ways they treat data-sparse regions such as the Arctic; the top six warmest Augusts in the NOAA database are separated by only 0.08°C.

Land areas had their fifth-warmest August on record in 2022, with global ocean temperatures the sixth-warmest on record, according to NOAA. North America and Europe had their warmest August on record, and Asia, its fourth-warmest. Oceania, Africa, and South America each had a warmer-than-average August, but it did not rank among their top 10 on record.

The year-to-date global surface temperature is the sixth-highest on record, and the year 2022 is virtually certain to rank among the 10 warmest years on record, according to NOAA. However, it is only 10.4% likely to rank in the top five, and there is less than a 0.1% chance that 2022 will rank as the warmest year on record, largely because La Niña conditions are very likely to prevail for the rest of the year (more below).

Third-hottest summer on record in the U.S.

In 2022, the contiguous U.S. had its eighth-hottest August, third-hottest July, and 15th-hottest June, giving the nation its third-hottest summer since records began in 1895. The average temperature of 73.92 degrees Fahrenheit was 2.52°F above the 20th century average, just 0.08°F behind the record hottest summers, in both 2021 and 1936.

During the period of intensified global and national warming since 1970, average summer temperatures in the contiguous U.S. have risen by about 2.2°F. In records going back to 1895, five of the 10 warmest U.S. summers have occurred over the past decade.

Figure 2. Summer temperatures (June-August) averaged across the contiguous United States since 1895. (Image credit: NOAA/NCEI)

China has its most intense heat wave in history

China had its most intense heat wave in recorded history during the June – August period, according to the China Meteorological Administration (CMA). That rating takes into account intensity, scale, and duration. The climate record for heat waves in China extends back to 1961. As documented below, an astonishing 265 stations in China with a long-term period of record set an all-time heat record in August; and additional 41 stations did so in July, and 16 in June. These statistics led extreme temperature expert Maximiliano Herrera to call the 2022 heat wave in China the most severe in world history (see Tweet below). On August 12, the heat wave prompted the CMA to issue its first-ever national-level red alert.

As tweeted by ChinaWXnerds, the Yangtze River at Wuhan had sunk by early September to its lowest late-summer levels in some 150 years of record-keeping.

Catastrophic monsoon flooding in Pakistan

The most expensive weather-related disaster worldwide so far in 2022 has been the devastating floods that struck Pakistan in late August, largely driven by record-smashing monsoon rainfall across the southern half of the nation, augmented by the arrival of two decaying tropical depressions from the Bay of Bengal.

Based on monthly climate summaries from the Pakistan Meteorological Department, precipitation in Pakistan was the heaviest on record when averaged nationwide for both July (6.98 inches or 177.5 millimeters, topping the record from 1978 of 6.03″) and August (7.58″ or 192.7 mm, demolishing the record from 2020 of 4.59″).

As explained by Eye on the Storm commentor WestIndWX:

The arid southern half of the country has been the worst-affected region. Usually, the provinces of Sindh and Balochistan are extremely dry, with an average annual rainfall of less than 8 inches (200 mm), and in some places less than 4 inches (100 mm). Most of the land is desert or semi-desert, except for a small patch of land on both sides of the Indus River which is irrigated and densely populated. This year, there were several monsoon systems which pushed deep into the region and dumped exceptionally heavy rain. Many places got their entire annual average rainfall just in July, and then several years’ worth of rain in August. In Sindh, 11 out of 17 observatories broke their August record, with nine of them more than doubling their previous record.

Most dramatically, the town of Padidan in Sindh recorded 1763.9 mm (69.44 inches) of rain in July and August, more than three times its heaviest annual total on record!

Bob Henson’s post on August 30, which compares the 2022 flood to a similar disaster in 2010 and explores the multiple climate-change factors that likely contributed to the disaster, included these grim initial statistics:

People affected:  20 million in 2010; 33 million in 2022;
People displaced:  6 million in 2010; 3.1 million in 2022;
Fatalities:  1,985 in 2010; 1,136 in 2022;
Homes destroyed:  1.8 million in 2010; 300,000 in 2022;
Livestock killed:  200,000 in 2010; 700,000+ in 2022;
Damage (2022 USD):  $12.9 billion in 2010; $10+ billion in 2022

A preliminary satellite-based analysis from the United Nations Institute for Training and Research found that for the period August 1-29, roughly 75,000 square kilometers of Pakistan were inundated, or about 9% of the entire nation. Within that flooded area, about 48,000 square kilometers were cropland, representing an astounding 21% of Pakistan’s entire cultivated area (based on data from the UN Food and Agriculture Organization). It is unclear which data were used for the widely cited estimate from Pakistan officials that one-third of the nation was under water.

It could take up to six months for the waters to recede across the hardest-hit parts of Pakistan, ensuring additional misery for millions.

Hottest summer on record in Europe

According to the Copernicus Climate Change Service, the summer of 2022 was Europe’s hottest on record by a stunning margin: 0.4 degree Celsius (0.7°F). It is rare to break a continental seasonal record by such a large margin, and this summer’s weather caused major havoc in Europe. The hot summer weather brought with it extreme drought: The European Commission on August 23 said preliminary data suggests “the current drought still appears to be the worst since at least 500 years.”

As of August 31, EU harvest forecasts are down 16% for corn, 15% for soybeans, and 12% for sunflowers, because of drought and heat.

The intense heat caused record melting of glaciers in the Alps, brought France a record wildfire season, dried up rivers to levels not seen in centuries, and heated up portions of the Mediterranean Sea to 5 degrees Celsius (9°F) above average (see Tweets below).

Unfortunately, in just 15 years, the intense heat in Europe’s summer of 2022 will be considered an average summer, according to an August analysis by the UK Met Office Hadley Centre (see Tweet below). And a July study in the journal Nature found that Europe is a heat wave hotspot on the globe, because of changes in the jet stream (see Tweet below).

An unusually long La Niña intensifies

La Niña conditions intensified during August and are expected to continue through the Northern Hemisphere autumn and winter (91% chance during September-November and a 54% chance in January-March), NOAA reported in its September monthly discussion of the state of the El Niño/Southern Oscillation, or ENSO. The odds of an El Niño event are no more than 6% into early 2023. The forecasters said there is “still large uncertainty over how long La Niña will last and when it will transition to ENSO-neutral (56% chance of a transition to ENSO-neutral during February-April 2023).”

Over the past month, sea-surface temperatures in the benchmark Niño 3.4 region of the eastern tropical Pacific (5°N-5°S, 170°W-120°W) decreased to about 1.0 degree Celsius below average, as analyzed at tropicaltidbits.com. The range for “weak” La Niña conditions is 0.5-1.0 degree Celsius below average; the range for “moderate” La Niña conditions is 1.0-1.5 degrees Celsius below average. Using a slightly different base climatology, NOAA reported on September 8 that the benchmark Niño 3.4 value was 0.8 degree Celsius below average.

A third consecutive northern winter with La Niña in 2022-23 would be unusual but not unprecedented: Three-year La Niña sequences occurred in 1973-76 and 1998-2001. There have been no four-year La Niña sequences in NOAA data that extends back to 1950, although La Niña was present in five out of six northern winters from 1970 to 1976.

Departure of sea surface temperature from averageFigure 3. Departure of sea surface temperature from average in the benchmark Niño 3.4 region of the eastern tropical Pacific (5°N-5°S, 170°W-120°W). In this analysis, temperatures have ranged from 0.6 to 1.0 degree Celsius below average since mid-August. (Image credit: Tropical Tidbits)

Departure of sea surface temperature from average
Figure 3. Departure of sea surface temperature from average in the benchmark Niño 3.4 region of the eastern tropical Pacific (5°N-5°S, 170°W-120°W). In this analysis, temperatures have ranged from 0.6 to 1.0 degree Celsius below average since mid-August. (Image credit: Tropical Tidbits)

The impact of the current La Niña event may be boosted by a negative Pacific Decadal Oscillation, or PDO. The PDO is an index of sea-surface temperatures across the northeast and tropical Pacific Ocean that reflects some of the circulation aspects of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation. The PDO can swing sharply from month to month, but usually it leans positive (warm) or negative (cool) for a few years at a time. Nearly every month since 2017 has had a negative PDO; August’s value was the lowest for any August since 2012, and the seventh lowest August value in NOAA data going back to 1854. When the PDO is negative, La Niña’s impacts often are more pronounced.

Arctic sea ice: 13th-lowest August extent on record

Arctic sea ice extent during August 2022 was the 13th-lowest in the 44-year satellite record, and had the highest August extent since 2014, according to the National Snow and Ice Data Center, or NSIDC. The southern route through Canada’s Northwest Passage was almost sea ice-free as of late August, except for some low concentration first-year ice in the vicinity of Victoria Strait. The northern route was not open for ice-free navigation, however.

Antarctic sea ice extent in August was the lowest for any August on record, beating out 2002. Antarctic sea ice extent tended to increase slightly from the 1980s through the 2010s, but it has decreased notably from 2017 onward, whereas arctic sea ice extent has decreased more consistently and dramatically over the past 40 years.

So far this year, Greenland has had a near-average melt year overall, with the total melt-day area ranking twentieth in the 44-year record. However, a late-season heat wave and melt event occurred in Greenland from September 2 to 5 (see Tweet below).

Notable global heat and cold marks for August 2022

The information below is courtesy of Maximiliano Herrera. Follow him on Twitter: @extremetemps.

– Hottest August temperature in the Northern Hemisphere: 53.6°C (128.5°F) at Shush, Iran, August 9;
– Coldest August temperature in the Northern Hemisphere: -34.7°C (-30.5°F) at Summit, Greenland, August 21;
– Hottest August temperature in the Southern Hemisphere: 41.5°C (106.7°F) at Villamontes, Bolivia, August 17;
– Coldest August temperature in the Southern Hemisphere: -80.3°C (-112.5°F) at Concordia, Antarctica, August 23;
– Highest 2022 average temperature to date (Jan.-Aug.) in the Southern Hemisphere: 29.4°C (84.9°F) at Surabya AP, Indonesia; and
– Highest 2022 average temperature to date (Jan.-Aug.) in the Northern Hemisphere: 32.2°C (90.0°F) at Matam, Sengal.

Major weather stations in August: 298 all-time heat records

Among global stations with a record of at least 40 years, an astonishing 298 set (not just tied) an all-time heat record in August; 265 of these stations were in China, because of an incredibly intense and long-lasting heat wave that has no parallel in world history:

Nanao (Japan) max. 38.0°C, August 1;
Obama (Japan) max. 39.1°C, August 1;
Shiotsu (Japan) max. 37.5°C, August 1;
Aoya (Japan) max. 38.5°C, August 1;
Bridgewater (South Dakota, USA) max 41.7°C, August 2;
Kashima (Japan) max. 37.2°C, August 2;
Yamanaka (Japan) max. 33.6°C, August 2;
Inatori (Japan) max. 36.5°C, August 3;
Mornant (France) max. 40.5°C, August 4;
Badonviller (France) max. 39.1 °C, August 4;
Mullheim (Germany) max. 38.7 °C, August 4;Weinbiet (Germany) max. 38.0 °C, August 4;
Fehmarn (Germany) max. 34.0°C, August 4;
Zadar (Croatia) max. 39.0°C, August 6;
Rab (Croatia) max. 39.5°C, August 6;
Nangqian (China) max. 30.0°C, August 9;
Yushu (China) max. 29.9°C, August 9;
Qumarleb (China) max. 25.6°C, August 9;
Madoi (China) max. 24.4°C, August 9;
Darlag (China) max. 25.9°C, August 9;
Dawu (China) max. 34.2°C, August 9;
Gade (China) max. 25.7°C, August 9;
Jingjiang (China) max. 40.6°C, August 10;
Jianwei (China) max. 40.3 °C, August 11;
Xindou (China) max. 38.9°C, August 11;
Kumatori (Japan) max. 36.7°C, August 11;
Ile d’ Yeu (France) max. 36.0°C, August 11;
Cardinham (United Kingdom) max. 31.6°C, August 11;
Milford Haven (United Kingdom) max. 30.8°C, August 12;Mumbles Head (United Kingdom) max. 31.2°C, August 12;
Maanshan (China) max.  42.0°C, August 12;
Zhushan (China) max.  44.3°C, August 13;
Baokang (China) max.  42.8 °C, August 13;
Shennongjia (China) max 37.6°C, August 13;
Zhuxi (China) max 42.0°C, August 13;
Bahie (China) max 43.0°C, August 13;
Hanyin (China) max 41.1°C, August 13;
Chuzhou (China) max 38.5°C, August 13;
Lekang (China) max 36.2°C, August 13;
Alicante (Spain) max. 42.0°C, August 13; 
Javea (Spain) max. 40.8°C, August 13;
Murcia San Javier (Spain) max. 41.9°C, August 13;
Formentera (Spain) max. 44.5°C, August 13;
Ibiza AP (Spain) max. 41.0°C, August 13;
Palma Port (Spain) max. 39.1°C, August 13;
Almeria AP (Spain) max. 42.0°C, August 13;
Maanshan (China) max. 42.7°C, August 14;
Hangzhou (China) max. 41.8°C, August 14;Ningshan (China) max. 38.5°C, August 14;
Zhenping (China) max. 38.1°C, August 14;
Qingyang (China) max. 41.1°C, August 14;
Yizheng (China) max. 41.1°C, August 14;
Danyang (China) max. 41.1°C, August 14;
Taixing (China) max. 40.9°C, August 14;
Dongshan (China) max. 40.7°C, August 14;
Yangzhou (China) max. 40.6°C, August 14;
Jiangdu (China) max. 40.5°C, August 14;
Taizhou (China) max. 40.0°C, August 14;
Gaoyu (China) max. 40.0°C, August 14;
Xinghua (China) max. 39.7°C, August 14;
Jinhua (China) max. 42.0°C, August 14;
Sohu (China) max. 41.9°C, August 14;
Zizong (China) max. 41.5°C, August 14;
Shimian (China) max. 40.9°C, August 14;
Wanyuan (China) max. 40.5°C, August 14;
Fengjie (China) max. 44.4°C, August 15;Wuxi  (China) max. 44.0°C, August 15;
Jianyang (China) max. 43.0°C, August 15;
Yixing (China) max. 42.2°C, August 15;
Renshou (China) max. 41.5°C, August 15;
Yanting (China) max. 41.3°C, August 15;
Santai (China) max. 41.2°C, August 15;
Tianzhu Mountain (China) max. 33.7°C, August 15;
Xingshan (China) max. 43.7°C, August 15;
Tiancheng (China) max. 43.0°C, August 15;
Badong (China) max. 42.8°C, August 15;
Danjiangkou (China) max. 42.7°C, August 15;
Wufeng (China) max. 42.1°C, August 15;
Xuanhan (China) max. 41.9°C, August 15;
Gucheng (China) max. 41.7°C, August 15;
Deqing (China) max. 41.5°C, August 15;
Kaikiang (China) max. 41.4°C, August 15;
Jiangjiang (China) max. 41.4°C, August 15;
Laohekou (China) max. 41.1°C, August 15;Mo (China) max. 40.9°C, August 15;
Cangxi (China) max. 40.9°C, August 15;
Da Shi (China) max. 40.5°C, August 15;
Wuxue (China) max. 40.5°C, August 15;
Taihu Lake (China) max. 40.4°C, August 15;
Zining (China) max. 40.2°C, August 15;
Qianshan (China) max. 40.1°C, August 15;
Nantong (China) max. 40.0°C, August 15;
Tongzhou (China) max. 39.6°C, August 15;
Zhangxin (China) max. 39.4°C, August 15;
Jonhu (China) max. 39.2°C, August 15;
Saijo (Japan) max. 37.9°C, August 15;
Gunge (Japan) max. 37.2°C, August 15;
Mabian (China) max. 40.1°C, August 16;
Daye (China) max. 41.3°C, August 16;
Tianquan (China) max. 37.0°C, August 16;
Shishou (China) max. 38.9  16 August
Tongnan (China) max. 44.4°C, August 17;
Guangan (China) max. 43.1°C, August 17;Hanchuan (China) max. 39.7°C, August 17;
Hechuan (China) max. 42.9°C, August 17;
Gabes (Tunisia) max. 48.0°C, August 18;
Monastir (Tunisia) max. 47.1°C, August 18;
Palermo AP (Italy) max. 44.3°C, August 18;
Beibei (China) max. 45.0°C, August 18;
Amagi (China) max. 43.3°C, August 18;
Changshou (China) max. 42.9°C, August 18;
Liangping (China) max. 42.0°C, August 18;
Yubei (China) max. 41.9°C, August 18;
Linshui (China) max. 43.0°C, August 18;
Nanzhang (China) max. 41.4°C, August 18;
Da Xian (China) max. 42.5°C, August 18;
Jiang Lu (China) max. 44.7°C, August 18;
Dianjiang (China) max. 42.2°C, August 18;
Xingwen (China) max. 43.8°C, August 18;
Dazhou (China) max. 42.5°C, August 18;
Jiangxia (China) max. 40.7°C, August 18;
Gongan (China) max. 38.9°C, August 18;Taoyuan (China) max. 41.4°C, August 18;
Sang Zhi (China) max. 40.9°C, August 18;
Linli (China) max. 40.7°C, August 18;
Yuanjiang (China) max. 40.5°C, August 18;
Lanxi (China) max. 41.7°C, August 18;
Peng Ze (China) max. 40.1°C, August 18;
Chongqing Shapingba (China) max. 43.7°C, August 19;
Yongchuan (China) max. 42.8°C, August 19;
Tongjiang (China) max. 41.1°C, August 19;
Shimen (China) max. 41.2°C, August 19;
Luan (China) max. 41.5°C, August 19;
Chaohu (China) max. 40.1°C, August 19;
Sanxia (China) max. 43.2°C, August 19;
Huangshi (China) max. 41.6°C, August 19;
Jiayu (China) max. 40.7°C, August 19;
Song Yi (China) max. 40.5°C, August 19;
Zhijiang (China) max. 39.8°C, August 19;
Jingzhou (China) max. 39.2°C, August 19;
Lichuan (China) max. 35.9°C, August 19;Guangshan (China) max. 40.2°C, August 19;
Shizu (China) max. 43.5°C, August 19;
Mochang (China) max. 43.1°C, August 19;
Archea (China) max. 43.2°C, August 19;
Shanghai Airport (China) max. 40.0°C, August 19;
Yongxing (China) max. 40.6°C, August 19;
Longshan (China) max. 40.3°C, August 19;
Jiangkou (China) max. 41.6°C, August 19;
Dejiang (China) max. 39.6°C, August 19;
Daozhen (China) max. 39.4°C, August 19;
Huichuan (China) max. 37.7°C, August 19;
Xifeng (China) max. 36.9°C, August 19;
Qianxi (China) max. 36.8°C, August 19;
Xishui (China) max. 36.5°C, August 19;
Udang (China) max. 36.0°C, August 19;
Yuan An (China) max. 41.6°C, August 19;
Suizhou (China) max. 41.2°C, August 19;
Jianshi (China) max. 40.8°C, August 19;
Yiling (China) max. 40.7°C, August 19;Xianfeng (China) max. 37.7°C, August 19;
Ninghai (China) max. 40.8°C, August 20;
Putuo (China) max. 39.1°C, August 20;
Suijiang (China) max. 41.4°C, August 20;
Hejiang (China) max. 43.6°C, August 20;
Yongshun (China) max. 41.3°C, August 20;
Huayuan (China) max. 41.5°C, August 20;
Bishan (China) max. 43.8°C, August 20;
Pongan (China) max. 43.3°C, August 20;
Lu (China) max. 43.1°C, August 20;
Suining (China) max. 42.7°C, August 20;
Xichong (China) max. 42.4°C, August 20;
Langzhong (China) max. 42.3°C, August 20;
Lezhi (China) max. 42.0°C, August 20;
Muchuan (China) max. 41.9°C, August 20;
Wangcang (China) max. 41.5°C, August 20;
Pengxi (China) max. 41.5°C, August 20;
Nanjiang (China) max. 41.2°C, August 20;
Iken (China) max. 41.1°C, August 20;Guangyuan (China) max. 40.9°C, August 20;
Xinjin (China) max. 40.2°C, August 20;
Pengzhou (China) max. 38.6°C, August 20;
Nanzheng (China) max. 40.0°C, August 20;
Changde (China) max. 41.7°C, August 20;
Tuanfeng (China) max. 40.6°C, August 20;
Laifeng (China) max. 40.1°C, August 20;
Songtao (China) max. 40.5°C, August 20;
Nanxi (China) max. 42.3°C, August 21;
Beixian (China) max. 39.6°C, August 21;
Chenggu (China) max. 40.7°C, August 21;
Lintan (China) max. 31.3°C, August 21;
Wencheng (China) max. 42.0°C, August 21;
Beichuan (China) max. 38.7°C, August 21;
Dujiangyan (China) max. 37.9°C, August 21;
Jiange (China) max. 39.7°C, August 21;
Shiquan (China) max. 42.2°C, August 21;
Yidu (China) max. 41.7°C, August 21;
Gaoyang (China) max. 43.5°C, August 21;Zigong (China) max. 43.4°C, August 21;
Jiangyang (China) max. 43.4°C, August 21;
Zhongjiang (China) max. 43.0°C, August 21;
Yingshan (China) max. 42.8°C, August 21;
Deyang (China) max. 42.7°C, August 21;
Shehong (China) max. 42.0°C, August 21;
Ertai (China) max. 41.9°C, August 21;
Jintang (China) max. 41.6°C, August 21;
Jingyan (China) max. 41.6°C, August 21;
Xindu (China) max. 41.2°C, August 21;
Zitong (China) max. 41.2°C, August 21;
Longquanyi (China) max. 41.2°C, August 21;
Guanghan (China) max. 41.1°C, August 21;
Anju (China) max. 40.8°C, August 21;
Shuangliu (China) max. 40.2°C, August 21;
Shifang (China) max. 39.7°C, August 21;
Pidu (China) max. 39.6°C, August 21;
Pujiang (China) max. 39.5°C, August 21;
Qionglai (China) max. 39.5°C, August 21;Chengdu Wenjiang (China) max. 39.4°C, August 21;
Yilong (China) max. 39.3°C, August 21;
Chongzhou (China) max. 39.2°C, August 21;
Dayi (China) max. 39.1°C, August 21;
Xixiang (China) max. 42.2°C, August 21;
Hanzhong (China) max. 40.4°C, August 21;
Zhouqu (China) max. 39.5°C, August 21;
Fuyuan (Taiwan) max. 41.6°C, August 21: New national record high for Taiwan;
Rongchang (China) max. 42.6°C, August 22;
Qingtian (China) max. 42.7°C, August 22;
Fangxian (China) max. 42.8°C, August 22;
Langao (China) max. 42.7 °C, August 22;
Linzhi (China) max. 42.8°C, August 22;
Gulin (China) max. 42.4°C, August 22;
Beilun (China) max. 40.8°C, August 22;
Nan An (China) max. 40.3°C, August 22;
Changtai (China) max. 40.1°C, August 22;
Mian (China) max. 39.7°C, August 22;
Yunxi (China) max. 42.4°C, August 22;Ganluo (China) max. 41.3°C, August 22;
Neijiang Dongxing (China) max. 43.8°C, August 23;
Weiyuan (China) max. 43.1°C, August 23;
Ziyang (China) max. 43.0°C, August 23;
Zizhong (China) max. 42.9°C, August 23;
Gaoping Nanchong (China) max. 42.8°C, August 23;
Qianwei (China) max. 42.7°C, August 23;
Longchang (China) max. 42.6°C, August 23;
Pingchang (China) max. 42.6°C, August 23;
Anyue (China) max. 42.3°C, August 23;
Rongjiang (China) max. 42.0°C, August 23;
Pengshan (China) max. 41.7°C, August 23;
Meishan (China) max. 41.6°C, August 23;
Emei (China) max. 41.4°C, August 23;
Jiang An (China) max. 41.4°C, August 23;
Qingshen (China) max. 41.3°C, August 23;
Leshan (China) max. 41.3°C, August 23;
Mianyang (China) max. 41.1°C, August 23;
Jiajiang (China) max. 40.9°C, August 23;Mianzhou (China) max. 39.5°C, August 23;
Hong Ya (China) max. 39.3°C, August 23;
Dan Leng (China) max. 39.0°C, August 23;
Heijiang (China) max. 43.4°C, August 23;
Barkam (China) max. 36.3°C, August 23;
Chishui (China) max. 43.5°C, August 23;
Nayong (China) max. 34.3°C, August 23;
Hua An (China) max. 39.8°C, August 23;
Xiushui (China) max. 42.6°C, August 23;
Jinchuan (China) max. 39.7°C, August 23;
Honguan (China) max. 27.2°C, August 23;
Ningqiang (China) max. 39.1°C, August 23;
Liuyang (China) max. 40.8°C, August 23;
Ji An (China) max. 41.1°C, August 23;
Duchang (China) max. 41.0°C, August 23;
Shangli (China) max. 40.9°C, August 23;
Dean (China) max. 40.8°C, August 23;
Jishui (China) max. 40.8°C, August 23;
Wannian (China) max. 40.6°C, August 23;Anyi (China) max. 40.6°C, August 23;
Poyang (China) max. 40.3°C, August 23;
Fuliang (China) max. 40.1°C, August 23;
Xunwu (China) max. 38.5°C, August 23;
Nanling (China) max. 39.8°C, August 23;
Pingyuan (China) max. 39.4°C, August 23;
Wengyuan (China) max. 38.6°C, August 23;
Yongan (China) max. 40.4°C, August 23;
Zhangping (China) max. 40.2°C, August 23;
Shanghang (China) max. 40.0°C, August 23;
Longyan (China) max. 39.0°C, August 23;
Wu Ping (China) max. 38.5 °C, August 23;
Qu (China) max. 44.0°C, August 24;
Fushan (China) max. 43.2°C, August 24;
Yibin (China) max. 42.2°C, August 24;
Dexing (China) max. 41.3°C, August 24;
Nanfeng (China) max. 41.3°C, August 24;
Yiyang (China) max. 41.5°C, August 24;
Nankang (China) max. 41.7°C, August 24;

Xingguo (China) max. 41.0°C, August 24;
Huichang (China) max. 40.0°C, August 24; and
Xiuwen (China) max. 34.1°C, August 24.

Eight all-time national/territorial heat records set or tied in 2022

One nation set or tied an all-time reliably measured national heat record in August (Taiwan, which beat the record established just the previous month), bringing the total of such records to eight in 2022:

Paraguay:  45.6°C (114.1°F) at Sombrero Hovy, January 1;
Australia:  50.7°C (123.3°F) at Onslow AP, January 13 (tie);
Uruguay:  44.0°C (111.2°F) at Florida, January 14 (tie);
Vatican City: 40.8°C (105.4°F), June 28;
United Kingdom: 40.3°C (104.5°F) at Coningsby, July 19;
Jersey (UK dependency): 37.9°C (100.2°F) at Mason St. Louis, July 18;
Taiwan: 41.4°C (106.5°F) at Zhuoxi, July 22; beaten on August 21, with 41.6°C at Fuyuan; and

Hong Kong: 39.0°C (102.2°F) at Sheng Shui, July 24 (tie).

In addition, all-time heat records were set in July for all three of the Great Britain countries that are part of the United Kingdom:

England:  40.3 °C (104.5 °F) at Coningsby, July 19
Wales:  37.1 °C (98.8 °F) at Hawarden, July 18
Scotland:  34.8 °C (94.6 °F) at Charterhall, July 19

Two all-time national/territorial cold records set or tied in 2022

As of the end of August, two nations or territories had set or tied an all-time national cold record:

Montenegro: -33.4°C (-28.1°F) at Kosanica, January 25; and
Myanmar: -6.0°C (21.2°F) at Hakha, January 29 (tie).

Fifty additional monthly national/territorial heat records beaten or tied as of the end of August

In addition to the eight all-time national/territorial records listed above (plus the double record set in Taiwan), 50 nations or territories have set monthly all-time heat records in 2022, for a total of 59 monthly all-time records:

– January (11): Mexico, USA, Croatia, Liechtenstein, Moldova, Comoros, Mayotte, Maldives, Dominica, Equatorial Guinea, Montenegro;
– February (2): Papua New Guinea, Pakistan;
– March (3): Myanmar, Pakistan, Mauritius;
– April (3): British Indian Ocean Territories, Hong Kong, Chad;
– May (6): Chad, Morocco, Liechtenstein, Andorra, Vatican City, Mauritius;
– June (13): Saba, Jersey, Switzerland, Poland, Czech Republic, Japan, Tunisia, Slovenia, Croatia, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Slovakia;
– July (6): New Caledonia, Andorra, Portugal, Ireland, Denmark, Paraguay; and
– August (6): Cocos Islands, Iran, Qatar, Ireland, Saba, Saint Barthélemy.

Seven additional monthly national/territorial cold records beaten or tied as of the end of August

In addition to the two all-time national/territorial records listed above, seven nations or territories have set monthly all-time cold records in 2022, for a total of nine monthly all-time records:

– March (2): Montenegro and Cyprus;
– April (2): Andorra, Laos;
– May (2): Vietnam, Thailand; and
– July (1): Montenegro.

Hemispherical and continental temperature records in 2022

– Highest temperature ever recorded in January in North America: 41.7°C (107.1°F) at Gallinas, Mexico, January 1;

– Highest temperature ever recorded in the Southern Hemisphere (tie) and world record for highest temperature ever recorded in January: 50.7°C (123.3°F) at Onslow AP, Australia, January 13;

Highest minimum temperature ever recorded in South America: 32.2°C (90.0°F) at Pampa del Infierno, Argentina, January 17; and

– Highest minimum temperature ever recorded in January in the Northern Hemisphere: 29.3°C (84.7°F) at Kenieba, Mali, on January 15 (and again on January 30).

– Highest temperature ever recorded in August in Asia: 53.6°C (128.5°F) at Shush, Iran, on August 9.

Editor’s note: this post was updated on Sep. 17 to add the monthly heat record for Saint Barthélemy.

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Jeff Masters


Jeff Masters, Ph.D., worked as a hurricane scientist with the NOAA Hurricane Hunters from 1986-1990. After a near-fatal flight into category 5 Hurricane Hugo, he left the Hurricane Hunters to pursue a… More by Jeff Masters

Bob Henson


Bob Henson is a meteorologist and journalist based in Boulder, Colorado. He has written on weather and climate for the National Center for Atmospheric Research, Weather Underground, and many freelance… More by Bob Henson

Dr. Jeff Master’s and Hottest summer on record for Europe and China during Northern Hemisphere’s 2nd-hottest summer was first published on Yale Climate Connections, a program of the Yale School of the Environment, available at: http://yaleclimateconnections.org. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 2.5 license (CC BY-NC-ND 2.5).

Here are some “ET’s” recorded from around the planet the last couple of days, their consequences, and some extreme temperature outlooks:

Here is more climate and weather news from Sunday:

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